International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research

Biochem
Journal

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Vol. 8, Special Issue 4, Part C (2024)

Recent advances in veterinary vaccines

Author(s): Dr. Shimaakhtar Saiyad, Dr. BB Bhanderi and Dr. PG Koringa
Abstract: A vaccine is a suspension of killed or weakened microbes, toxins, or biological preparations to prevent illness. It can confer active immunity by stimulating the immune system to attack the harmful agent, while passive immunity may be provided by providing antibodies or lymphocytes from an animal or human donor. There are several types of vaccines, including inactivated vaccines, live-attenuated vaccines, DNA vaccines, mRNA vaccines, subunit, recombinant and viral vector vaccines. Conventional inactivated and modified-live vaccines have provided advantages to people and animals alike against harmful bacteria. Inactivated vaccines are generally safe and inexpensive to create, mostly delivering antigens via the MHC-II route. DNA vaccines, on the other hand, transfect a specific antigen-coding DNA sequence into an organism's cells to induce an immune response. They work by injecting genetically engineered plasmid containing the antigen(s) against which an immune response is sought, causing cells to directly produce the antigen, causing a protective immunological response. Recombinant DNA vaccines are being explored as a potential strategy against bovine Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Current vaccines, including synthetic proteins, offer short-term immunity but face challenges like lack of cross-protection against multiple strains, cold storage, and reinfection risk. A multi-epitope DNA-based vaccine is designed as a cost-effective and non-pathogenic alternative for FMD protection. RNA vaccines involve introducing an mRNA sequence coding for a disease-specific antigen, which the immune system recognizes and prepares to fight the infection. Recombinant viral vector vaccines are novel veterinary medicine technologies that use viruses for vaccinology. Novel vaccines, including DNA, RNA, and recombinant viral-vector vaccines, are economically manufactured, safe, and differentiate infected animals.
Pages: 220-232  |  186 Views  89 Downloads


International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research
How to cite this article:
Dr. Shimaakhtar Saiyad, Dr. BB Bhanderi, Dr. PG Koringa. Recent advances in veterinary vaccines. Int J Adv Biochem Res 2024;8(4S):220-232. DOI: 10.33545/26174693.2024.v8.i4Sc.981
International Journal of Advanced Biochemistry Research
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