Introduction: Various biochemical tumour markers have been studied singly or in combination, in breast malignancies which help in diagnosing carcinoma of breast cancer.
Aim: To assess the levels of enzymes Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Gamma glutamyl trans peptidase (GGT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma breast and study if there is any clinical correlation of the levels of these enzymes with the presence of early untreated breast carcinoma.
Materials and Method: This is prospective study done during the period February 2018 to Jan 2019.In Government Pudukkottai medical college. It was carried out in two groups, namely apparently healthy 27 females controls and 50 females with newly diagnosed carcinoma breast.
Results: The imbalance between free radicals and the anti-oxidants in the causation of breast cancer is being researched. Free radicals has been implicated in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate if the levels of biochemical markers LDH and GGT, and the level of antioxidant enzyme SOD are altered in cases with carcinoma breast, when compared to the levels in apparently normal controls.
In humans, three forms of superoxide dismutase are present. SOD1 is located in the cytoplasm, SOD2 in mitochondria and SOD3 in extracellular matrix. SOD causes detoxifies super oxide to hydrogen peroxide. LDH is a glycolytic enzyme with five iso enzymes. The level of LDH is increased in various malignancies. GGT helps in transportation of amino acids in the cells.
Conclusion: The levels of LDH and GGT were found to be significantly elevated in the cases, whereas the levels of SOD were found to be significantly lowered in the cases. The SOD levels were lower in cases with stage-3 carcinoma breast than in cases with stage-2 carcinoma breast.