Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - unifying mechanism involving antioxidant therapy: Phenolics, reactive oxygen species, and oxidative stress
Author(s): Peter Kovacic and Wil Weston
Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress (OS) play roles in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as also in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Dementia, Schizophrenia (SCZ), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Huntington’s Disease (HD), and Depression. Various sources, including oxidases, serve as generators of ROS-OS, such as mitochondria, NADPH, cytochromes P450, monoamines, ET metal complexes, G72 gene, and microglia. Diverse types of antioxidants (AOs) exert a positive influence on the harmful effects. Methylphenadate (MPH) is a widely favored drug for ADHD; however, there is considerable ROS-OS and AO action is less clear. Nevertheless, a proposal for the AO action is offered. MPH’s dopaminergic action provides additional support for quinone formation, similar to dopamine. There are appreciable numbers of phenol and phenolic ether drugs, as for AD (1) and PD (2). A unifying mechanism based on ET-ROS-OS-AO is involved. Other possible influential aspects are discussed in a multifaceted approach.