Pattern of inbreeding in thalassemia affected families resident in Tuman Leghari district Dera ghazi khan
Author(s): Ayaz Ahmad, Asma Saeed and Dr. Amin-Ud-Din
Abstract: The inbred marriages are highly acceptable in many populations of human beings but their prevalence and configuration vary depending on ethnicity, religious conviction, learning and socioeconomic circumstances of relevant population. Such social contracts are reported as the most important cause of enhancing the occurrence of the hereditary disorders by recessive autosomal, especially Thalassemia. The challenges of hereditary diseases trouble in the population calls for the progress of anticipation programs. But the implementations of different means require the information about types and prevalence of hereditary diseases and family system in population. This study focuses on inbred marriages and genetic diseases in the general population of Tuman Leghari resident in district D.G. Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. Ethnically the highest positive response was found in Saraiki (other than Baloch) 47.30% than Leghari (32.26%) or Khosa (20.44%). The Saraiki other than Baloch, Khosa and Leghari families were 47.30%, 32.26%, and 20.44% respectively. There was many differences found between the frequency of inbred and out bred marriages of total sample as well as within the ethnic groups, Leghari, and Khosa (X2=10.87 P<0.001; X2=47.45 P<0.001 and X2=03.73 P<0.001 respectively. Statistical analysis uncover the significant difference among various types of marriages in Leghari, Khosa and Saraiki other than Baloch (X2=20.00 P<0.001). A significant difference was observed in Leghari and non-significant difference observed in Khosa and Saraiki other than Baloch with 10.87, 27.09 and 3.73 Chi values respectively. The calculated mean inbreeding coefficient (F) for the total population was 0.0287. Three groups formed on male education in order to assess the effect of education on the inbred marriages. In total samples, representing the lower, middle and higher levels of male education comprised Leghari 114 (19.95%), Khosa 133 (34.72%) and Saraiki other than Baloch 184 (45.32%) couples, respectively. Female education found to be statistically significant in Khosa group. The effect of socioeconomic status of male on marriages was also studied; the sample was distributed in three groups on the basis of socioeconomic status of male at the time of marriage. The total sample representing the lower, middle, and higher levels comprised Leghari 120 (29.56%), Khosa (131 (32.26%) and Saraiki other than Baloch 155 (38.18%). The statistical analysis uncovers significant results in total and Leghari ethnic groups. In order to find the impact of socioeconomic status of female on inbred marriage, the sample was divided into three groups based on female socioeconomic status at the time of marriage. The total sample representing the lower, middle, and higher levels comprised Leghari 108 (26.60%), Khosa 152 (37.44%) and Saraiki other than Baloch 146 (35.96%). The statistical analysis uncovers significant results in total sample, Leghari and Saraiki other than Baloch ethnic groups. During the survey, The number of thalassemia couples were 26 (66.67%) respectively. The affected couples with Thalassemia were found widespread in the sample. On ethnic base, 33.33%, 10.26% and 56.41% of total afflicted couples were found to be related with the Leghari, Khosa and Saraiki other than Baloch groups respectively. In the groups of afflicted couples based on genetic diseases, inbreeding was found 100% in thalassemia. Data on children in Leghari, Khosa and Saraiki other than Baloch were statistically significant in both affected and non-affected. In case of data on number of children in Leghari, Khosa and Saraiki other than Baloch in albino were found non-significant and in thalassemia were highly significant in chi test. Awareness about thalassemia and behavior of parents, relatives, society toward Thalassemics were found statistically significant.